This post reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. malignant counterparts[ 83]Constriction channelOne-frequency impedance data (100 kHz)Adult reddish blood cells and neonatal reddish blood cells[ 84]Constriction channelFour-frequency impedance data (50 kHz, 250 kHz, 500 kHz and 1.0 MHz)Polymer beads of 20 m, undifferentiated stem cells and differentiated stem cells[ 6]Constriction channel + comparative circuit modelSpecific membrane capacitance and cytoplasm conductivityCharacterization of size-independent intrinsic cellular electrical properties from hundreds of sole cells[ 85]Constriction channel + comparative circuit modelSpecific membrane capacitance and cytoplasm conductivityPaired high- and low-metastatic cancer cells, and tumor cells with sole oncogenes under regulation[ 5]Parallel microelectrodes + optical lensTwo-frequency impedance data (503 kHz and 1.7 MHz) and fluorescent signalslymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils[ 10]Parallel microelectrodes + optical lensTwo-frequency impedance data (503 kHz and 10.0 MHz) and fluorescent signalsLymphocytes, lymphocytes + CD4 beads, granulocytes, monocytes and monocytes + CD4[ Nandrolone propionate 11]Parallel microelectrodes + on-chip optical fibersOne-frequency impedance data (1.0 MHz), fluorescent signs, and side spread lightMicrobeads (10 and 15 m diameter fluorescent, 20 and 25 m diameter simple)[ 86]Parallel microelectrodes + Nandrolone propionate on-chip waveguidesTwo-frequency impedance data (500 kHz and 2.0 MHz), fluorescent signs, and side spread lightLymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, neutrophils and CD4 labelled white blood cells[ 87]Parallel microelectrodes + sample pretreatment moduleTwo-frequency impedance data (500 kHz and 1.7 MHz)Lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, red blood cells and platelets[ 88]Parallel microelectrodes + sample pretreatment moduleTwo-frequency impedance data (303 kHz and 1.7 MHz)CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes Open in a separate window 2. Early Development of Microfluidic Circulation Cytometry for Single-Cell Electrical House Characterization Renaud are the pioneers in the field of microfluidic impedance circulation cytometry [77,79,89,90,91,92,93]. In 2001, Renaud proposed the first microfluidics-based impedance circulation cytometry for high-throughput single-cell electrical home characterization . As demonstrated in Number 1a, a microfluidic chip with channels integrated having a differential pair of coplanar microelectrodes Nandrolone propionate was used to characterize electrical properties of solitary cells. The cells were flushed through the measurement area inside a high-throughput manner with the impedance data measured at two given frequencies. In this study, an comparative circuit model for microfluidic impedance circulation cytometry was developed where Cm, Rc, Rsol and Cdl represent cell membrane capacitance, cytoplasm resistance, buffer solution resistance and electrical double coating capacitance, respectively (observe Figure 1a). Open in a separate window Number 1 (a) The first-generation microfluidic impedance circulation cytometry where a microfluidic chip with integrated channels and a differential pair of coplanar microelectrodes were proposed to quantify two-frequency impedance data of solitary Nandrolone propionate cells flushed through the measurement area inside a high-throughput manner; (b) The complex impedance spectrum of a cell is definitely Nandrolone propionate simulated using an comparative circuit model where impedance data at numerous rate of recurrence domains indicate the electrical double layer, cellular size, membrane capacitance and cytoplasm resistance, respectively; (c) IDH1 Impedance amplitude difference of 5 and 8 m latex beads, confirming that impedance data at ~1 MHz can reflect particle sizes. Note that transit time indicates the touring velocity of latex beads which were also from impedance data; (d) Regular erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghost cells had been characterized, with equivalent low-frequency impedance data indicating size comparability and significant distinctions at high-frequency impedance data recommending cytoplasm conductivity distinctions . Furthermore, complex impedance spectral range of a cell as simulated using an similar circuit model was proven in Amount 1b. Predicated on simulation outcomes, the authors recommended which the impedance data for frequencies less than 100 kHz, between 100 kHzC1 MHz, 2C5 MHz and 10C100 MHz reveal the electrical double layer, cellular size, membrane capacitance and cytoplasm resistance, respectively. Note that this impedance spectrum has served as the guiding rule of rate of recurrence choice in the subsequent development of microfluidic impedance circulation cytometry. To demonstrate its applications, the microfluidic device was used to differentiate latex beads of 5 and 8 m at 1.72 MHz. The result confirmed that.